Monday, March 9, 2020
Hypothetically Proposing a Bill to Congress Essays Hypothetically Proposing a Bill to Congress Essay Hypothetically Proposing a Bill to Congress Essay A Bill To Mandate Manufactured Domestic Goods American Engineering Association Writer and Representative-of United States Federal Congress Table Of Contents corporations outsourcing almost 56% of their companies products since 1999, the War on Terror, and inflation are Just a few of the many problems facing the people of the United States. The Democrats and Republicans nearly shut down Washington D. C. because the parties could not agree upon a budget that could get the nation out of debt. Although there has been a slight turn around for the nations economy, it ould be short-term and will not create a permanent solution for the nations ever- growing debt crisis. By being 15 trillion dollars in debt and the number increasing by the second, for the first time in our nations history our childrens future will be worse off than our own. In our form of government there are elected people who vote on issues versus one person making all the decisions. Not only is there a multitude of people,however, there are two separate parties in our political system. Therefore, right from the beginning our government would naturally have a hard time agreeing nd then determining how it will be dispersed. Between cutting or raising taxes or cutting money from the budget;most officials believes more money should be budgeted for other things and some things should be cut more than others. The main issue is agreeing upon how the money should be spent in a budget where over half the budget is deficit spending and the long-term goal is trying to get the country out of debt at the same time. One of the main subjects that is considered mandatory spending is the interest on the debt that is accumulated every year. At this current oint in time, the United States is treading in a fifteen trillion dollar pool of mud and it seems like there is no way to get out. At the same time, the economy is in a recession and people are losing Jobs. It is no easy task to try and balance a budget in a slipping economy and at the same time pull the American people out of debt so that in the future this country is prosperous. Deciding how to get out of the current situation is a difficult process. The government has three ways of raising revenue raising taxes, cutting expenditures, or both. All three of these issues affects each citizen of the United States. However, there is a solution without doing any of these things. When people work they make money and spend it, which is a large factor that stimulates the economy. one of the current major issues is where companies are outsourcing Jobs and merchandise. The American people are losing Jobs to companies who outsource to other countries where they can pay less for the work versus paying more in their own country. This gives other countries an upper hand in the business and financial world. As well as having other countries advance, another issue is the message other countries are erceiving from the United States. Our market allows companies to outsource Jobs to the Philippines, El Salvador, Guatemala, and the list goes on where labor regulations are far less superior than our own. Practice what you preach, is an incredibly valid statement to live by. The United States is a super power that must set an example for other countries to follow by. For example, the clothing company Old Navvy which also owns other brands such as the Gap and Banana Republic where infamous in October of 2000 for outsourcing their clothing to Cambodia and only paying workers and child orkers twenty-one cents an hour. The net profit for the company that year was 877. 5 million dollars and annual sales was 13. 7 billion dollars. If this was happening in the United States, people would be punished by law and it would make headlines all over the world. Child workers have been reported as working as young as eight in the factories, where the actual legal age of employment is fifteen. Child labor and other countries becoming more advanced in the business and financial world are Just two of the many reasons why outsourcing is not a helping our morale or financial standpoint. The government could implement higher taxes on companies who outsource or who implement child labour, send representatives from organizations, for example, International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour and elected officials to countries where children labor laws are not strictly practiced to talk with leaders of the country about how big of an issue it really is, and having the people from the same organizations arrange mandatory meetings with top company CEOs who implement outsourcing their products to countries like Bangladesh and Guatemala, or another solution is to outlaw any company who outsources to a
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Global Marketing - Essay Example Many multinational corporations target customers from different parts of the world. It is imperative for marketers to customize their advertising efforts depending on the global market they are targeting. People from Europe have different taste than American customers. Global marketing has increased in popularity during the 21st century. Marketers today are using a wide variety of tools and techniques to reach the global masses. One of the most popular tools that global marketers are using to send messages to customers is the internet. The internet is a very effective marketing tool because marketers can run campaigns through the internet at lower costs in comparison with traditional media such as the television. Another advantage of the internet for global marketers is that anyone around the world can gain access to a website by typing in the URL. A lot of global marketers are taking advantage of the trend of internet surfers visiting a few times per day social media websites. The l argest social media website, Facebook, is estimated to have one billion users by the end of 2012 (Purdueexponent). The users on Facebook account for one-seventh of the world population. Another popular method global marketers use to reach the masses is television commercials during major sporting or social events. During 2012 global marketers paid up to $4 million for a 30 second ad during the Super Bowl (Yglesias, 2012). An important factor that global marketers must take into consideration is the culture of the country the firm wants to penetrate. The over 200 countries around the world have different cultures, thus marketers have to adapt their marketing campaigns to meet the taste and preferences of the global customers. Consumer Behavior Consumer behavior studies how individuals, groups, and organizations select, buy, use, and dispose goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and desires (Kotler). To understand consumer behavior markers have to spend time an d resources doing market research. Consumer behavior varies depending on the age, race, and gender of the person among other factors. Companies from all industries must pay close attention to consumer behavior. Companies that are able learn about the consumer behavior of its target market are usually more successful. Understanding consumer behavior is a very challenging task. Ã¢â¬Å"Consumer may say one thing but do another.Ã¢â¬ (Kotler). Investing money to understand consumer behavior can be very beneficial because it can increase the total sales of a company. Time and experience are two factors that can positively influence in the efforts of companies to learn about consumer behavior. There are different stages of the buying process of customers. The six stages of customer behavior are: problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision, purchase, and post purchase evaluation (Udel). Customers often change their purchasing behavior during the ir lifetime. The taste of teenagers, adults, and senior citizens are much different. The income capacity of a consumer influences their purchasing decisions. Many multinational corporations invest millions of dollars in marketing in order to attract customers. The fast food industry invested in 2010 $4.2 billion in advertising (Philpott). Advertising has the effect of creating interest of customers in goods and services. Many consumers are impulsive buyers. The use of discounts and specials is often used by the retail industry to attract customers. It is important for businesses to obtain customer retention. Based on ParetoÃ¢â¬â¢s rule 80% of a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s sales comes from 20% of its customers. Another way to increase customer retention is by
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Web 2.0 and Beyond - Assignment Example Generally, these technologies were more users friendly and one could learn and at same time make contribution. One thing which I disliked about these technologies was their lack of privacy. Web 2.0 technologies assimilation has led to both positive and negative impacts in life. One of their advantages is the ease of access of information and communication. These technologies have made information easily accessible from variety of sources. They facilitate interaction at advanced levels through chatting in blogs, over social sites and video conferencing all of which have made communication nowadays more effective and efficient. The main disadvantage of web 2.0 technologies is over dependence amongst its users. This means that one is shut down in case of internet slow down or failure. Furthermore, there is lack of privacy and security of data shared due to susceptibility of hacking and plagiarism in case of literal information. Despite these disadvantages these technologies have currently been applied in fields like sales and marketing e.g. in second life and many others which have made life better. On the contrary many users have fallen prey to hackers and grown excessiv ely dependent on the internet. Thus it is inconclusive to state web 2.0 is a breakthrough. Web 3.0Ã refers to a proposed semantic web which will incorporate personalizations like. iGoogle, intelligent search and behavioral advertising with the objective of turning web into a database. Contrary to the past technologies it is infrastructural based. Web 3.0 will add more value to users since the technology will be with human capabilities of accurately and precisely determining information required, translating to more relevant information. In addition, this may lead to massive loss of employment since most activities unlike currently will be automated. This will be caused by the human intelligence to be applied in webs 3.0
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Investigation of whether Poverty Causes Crime In the current essay we will discuss the fact that poverty causes crime. Poverty is a characteristic of the economic situation of the individual or social group in which they cannot satisfy a certain range of the minimum requirements needed for life saving ability. Poverty is a relative concept and depends on the overall standard of living in the society. According to experts, not getting decent wages for their work, young people gradually lose the desire to marry and to have children they are full of fear for tomorrow, not sure that tomorrow they will not be fired because of another financial crisis. In addition, low wages and lack of jobs, experts say, are pushing young people to commit crimes in order to get rich quickly. It is, therefore, among criminals, increases the number of adolescents, aged 18 to 25 years. Poverty is a consequence of diverse and interrelated reasons, which combine into the following groups: economic (unemployment, low wages, low productivity, lack of competitiveness of the industry); socio-medical (disability, old age, high levels of morbidity); Demographic (parent families, a large number of dependents in the family); socio-economic (low level of social guarantees); educational qualifications (a low level of education, lack of training); political (military conflict, forced migration); regional-geographic (uneven development of regions). As well, current crisis makes people react and do something, even if it is illegal, they start committing a crime. Poverty causes many crimes, as if a person was not poor and had faith in himself, he would not face the thought that he should search another ways to get money. According to Crime Causes Poverty (2010), being poor, which could be caused by different reasons, makes a person unhappy, incapable to earn enough money, to buy anything he wants or at least something necessary. Poverty determines a certain stereotype in a persons thoughts, and he does not see any constructive solving of the problem, as he wants to choose the easiest way of getting money, even harming other people. According to Borade (2007), poverty has a huge psychological influence on people, who become depressed, desperate and then they decide to commit a crime, as they have not found anything that can legally get them out of such situation. Too many problems that a person faces in the modern society makes him get angrier on the whole situation and forces to look for the new ways of solving his problem. The desperate economical situation in the country and consequently the lack of the work places, especially for young people, creates the thoughts and actions of crime. No guarantees from the government and no proper help to people who are poor leads to the chaos and misunderstanding, where the only way out they find, is to commit a crime. Poverty as a social phenomenon in a historical sense is of lasting value. The extent and depth of immersion of the people in the country reflects two important aspects of society the level of development of productive forces and the corresponding character of their operation principle of social justice. Most often, poverty is treated as financial insecurity of people, when income of a person or family does not allow maintaining socially necessary consumption for life, interfering with normal living and personal development. According to Mac Donald 2010), poverty serves as guidelines for shaping social policy. This phenomenon is assessed by using indicators of absolute and relative poverty, its depth and severity, as well as by the subjective perception of their individual well-being and quality of life. To determine the effect of poverty on crime, there may be also another way: by studying the living conditions of the poor and convicted before they commit crimes. As a consequence of the fact that poverty causes crime, criminally distorted psychology of society, values and personality, as a direct cause of crime are expressed by more than just greed, aggression, irresponsibility and neglect of criminal law prohibitions, as stated by Charen (2007). It has several forms: greed, the cause component of the Organized Crime and Entrepreneurship, parasitism, irresponsibility, situational robbery, when crimes are committed to meet the immediate material needs, poverty is an incentive for the physical survival. At a gain now there is 80% of the totality of the causes of crime at this time. The main source of crime in any society is the aggravation of his social contradictions. It is also defined as meaningful and with the quantifiable features of the formation, which are within the specific time parameters. It is known, that the technologically advanced capitalist countries do not have the same level of crimes. As a fact, crimes begin from the childhood. As a rule, if a child was born in a poor family, there are more chances that he will start committing crimes. All over the world there is propaganda of a luxurious way of life, of successful people, of expensive mansions, cars, of beautiful journeys, etc. When children and adolescents see that and understand that parents will not provide them with all these things, they start looking for the opportunity to get money fast in order to buy at least something. And consequently, they decide to commit a crime. According to Barr (1992), the crimes committed by adolescents are considered the cruelest. The majority of cases of all crimes show that a driving force of the crimes is the money. The values of the society are built the way that those people with the problems in their minds decide to bring closer all these luxurious things. One of the main aspects that can prevent poverty is education. If children are educated properly, then they will perceive the reality as it is and they will try to succeed in legal ways by studying and then getting a job. Sometimes, crimes are the symptom of the culture, and education can cure the cultural poverty, and only then the financial poverty will be cured itself as a consequence. As a fact, not only poor people commit crimes, as there are also rich people who have no boundaries in their actions and also power and they also commit crimes to get more money and power, according to McGrath (2009). Considering the statistics, the total number of the seven index crimes is reported to police per 100,000 inhabitants in the United States. The research states that if to reduce poverty, crime will be reduced, although with the crisis that has begun in 2008, there have been registered less crimes, although there are more poor people because of the crisis. As an example of it, in the first decade of the XXI century crime in the United States has tended to decline. By the end of the decade, crime rates, according to many indicators, have fallen dramatically, despite the economic crisis of 2008-2010. In some cities such as New York, the crime rate has dropped to the record lows. With the onset of recession in the U.S., many media outlets have expressed fears that the crisis (for example, increased unemployment and reduced real incomes of people) will lead to a rapid increase in crime. FBI report shows that these fears have not yet been met. Published in the 2008, the study of the Heritage Foundation has shown that the relationship between economic perturbations and the crime exists, but it is not so clear. Thus, in the United States there is a nation-wide crime statistics since 1934. During all this time only for 16 years the crime rate has declined. The crime rate has steadily increased from 1955 to 1972, although this time the U.S. economy has experienced a rapid period of development, and then a recession occurred only in mid-1960. In turn, during the Great Depression statistics was only for the period from 1934 to 1938 criminals have shown less activity. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) issued a preliminary report on crime rates in the U.S. in 2009. This statistics is based on data provided by about 17 thousand law enforcement agencies of different jurisdictions. The main conclusions of the report, compared to 2008, is that the number of property crimes in the U.S. decreased by 6.1%, violent crimes by 4,4%. According to the report, this year the number of murders in the U.S. fell by 10%, robberies on 6,5%, rape by 3,3%. Among property crimes, the most significantly decreased the number of thefts of cars (by 18.7%), theft (by 5.3%) and burglary (2.5%). The greatest reductions in crime were noted in cities with populations exceeding one million. In addition to FBI statistics, the crime rate measures the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics by the Census Bureau (study called National Crime Victimization Survey). Since 1973, there have been annually polled 70-80 thousand of households (family or group of people living together and h aving a total budget), to identify about how many actually committed crimes Americans have not informed the police. The last time similar research was conducted in 2008. It has shown that the victims of the criminals Americans do not always turn to law enforcement agencies: becoming the victims of violent crimes, they shall notify the police in 51.2% of the property in 39.6% of cases. Another important indicator for gauging the level of crime in the U.S. is a traditional study conducted the service Gallup Rating the perception of crime. Every year Gallup asks Americans to estimate whether increased or decreased the number of crimes in their area and across the country. In the recent years, such survey was conducted in September 2009. Then 74% of Americans said that compared with last year the crime rate in the U.S. grew, and 15% reported that the situation has improved. The rise in crime in their area was 51%, decrease 29%. As a fact, 12% of respondents said that the situation with crime in their place of residence was very serious; the crime rate across the United States similarly estimated 55% of respondents. It is curious that in the last decade, both of these indicators remain fairly stable, fluctuating slightly. As a rule, those countries where there is no proper economic regulations, there are more chances that people will react negatively and commit more crimes, as the consequence of unhappy life and no perspective in such countries. Although there is no proof of the direct connection of the fact that poverty is the main motive to commit a crime, as there are many factors present in the minds of people who in different situations can act differently. According to Francis (2008), it is not quite explicable, that the fact that while there is a depression and economical crisis all over the world, people do not commit more crimes, as the statistics shows that people do not intend to commit more crimes. The consequences and the logic of this fact are not fully understandable. In the modern world everything changes so quickly that people get accustomed to the situation, they learn the rules of the game and probably they try to find a better way to earn money and succeed than to commit a crime. T here can be also hope that the more people get more education, the more they get the proper knowledge, the better they understand life and the rules to survive. The more people know, the better they understand the situations, the values, the perspective, the more ideas they have, the more creative they are and the more they feel capable to find a job and to succeed in life. In poor countries such as Brazil and the countries of the former Soviet Union, there are millions of poor people who do not have a way out because of the lack of any perspectives to find a job, as the level of corruption is extremely high. According to Langeneckert (2010), in such countries is especially visible the difference and the gap between the extremely rich and very poor people. There are almost no middle class people who have a job, a house and other benefits. According to Crime (2009), there are almost no chances to combat it, as poor and desperate people in these countries do not see any other opportunity except committing a crime. The obvious injustice and no social guarantees make people feel as losers, who see the luxurious life and who cannot touch it. As a fact, there is a lot of envy because of such a big gap and so much poverty. Each country has its problems and level of poverty, but there is one main point- the lack of money. According to Brill (1993), if people had money at least for the basic needs, there would be no such level of poverty. And as Aristotle said: Poverty is a source of disturbance and crime, which means that little problem becomes a huge problem if there is nothing useful done to prevent it. That is why the right policy of the country will be able to eliminate poverty and along with that there will be no crime in the future. What factors specifically lead to poverty in the countries? This is the high level of unemployment, a significant number of jobs that do not provide a living wage, as well as reducing the number of social service costs. It can be emphasized that poverty reduction should not be a charity event. It must go against strong social inequalities. The only way to do this is to foster a society of equal opportunities. If we deal only with short-term problems in order to achieve short term objectives rather than to focus on strategic issues of economic and social development, we may miss the last chance to make the country the basis for a viable, long-term development based on economic and social modernization. So, the agenda should include the following vital issues: Reducing inequality and providing our citizens with the opportunity to realize their constitutional rights; Restoration of a common economic space; Infrastructure development through the joint efforts of government and the private sector (roads, railways, ports, airports, bridges, power lines, electricity, etc.); The solution of demographic problems of the countries; The rise of living standards (including environmental problems); Eliminating unevenness in the level of regional development; Harmonization of interethnic relations in the country and the creation of normal living conditions for the communities; National security and territorial integrity; The safety of citizens; As a fact, it is easier to prevent poverty than to deal with its consequences. The fact that people commit crimes when they are poor does not justify them. But the government has to take measures to prevent the poverty, there should be created more opportunities for people to work, as keeping people busy can prevent crimes and even the thoughts of it. Proper economical policy, positive changes in the social sphere, economical issues and employment can guarantee the higher level of education and understanding the principles, which will help to avoid the crime in the future. There should be also organized the certain campaigns aimed at the reduction of poverty, as it in some cases causes crime. Anyway, if the importance of money was not so crucial these days, probably, the majority of people would not commit crimes. As it is very difficult to be different from everyone in the society that values the materialistic ideas, the goods and products, it becomes a real challenge not to have goals to buy the things or to own something. It happens because the society judges those who are different, who have different vision, goals, principles and ideas. That is why people are almost forced to do everything the right way to be as everyone else is, to work and to succeed. And if there are no possibilities for that in the country, people start looking for other wrong ways to reach it anyway. They start looking for the easiest, quickest and lowest ways to reach their goal, and that is why robberies, different violent crimes and thefts occur. Some people, after committing them, feel innocent, as they think that if the government did not give certain things and possibilities to them, then they have the right to take things or money from the richer people. Deceiving themselves, people live in their own world that is so narrow, that allows them to commit a crime and to presume that no one will ever know. As a fact, it is sad that a reality is that money takes a very important place in peoples lives. Everything people do to earn money sometimes in not enough, that is why arise different problems which lead to the thoughts to commit a crime as that last opportunity. Everyone wants to live worthily and this desire determines unexpected behavior. Often people want to prove something to their friends, family, loved ones, but they do not manage to achieve it in a legal way, choosing instead the lowest possible way to commit a crime, thinking that from that moment on everything would change for the better. It is obvious that money rules the world, which is why almost every crime is based on the desire to get more money at any cost. Those who commit crime do not usually think about consequences and they pay for everything they have done later. Sometimes people just lack the patience and they want to have everything too soon without any considerable long time efforts. Consequently, this practice does not work and people are forced to pay for everything they have done. According to McIlheran (2010), psychological help and support in difficult situations can help and benefit people to overcome difficulties, challenging times and other problems. Being open to discussions, to new ideas, to new opportunities and options, people can stop thinking about committing a crime because they are poor. The capacity to believe in yourself, in the future possibilities and in the brighter future lacks in the minds of the people. It is surprising that people commit crimes, as it is obvious that sooner or l ater they will pay for what they have done and it is important to take control of the life. According to Short (1997), the mistake is that people sometimes consider themselves cleverer than the others are, and think they are capable of changing their life easily by harming someone else. This method, fortunately, does not work. Being realistic and optimistic at the same time can save situation and turn life to the better. All in all, only the right policies of the countries can solve this problem and make people understand and see other right ways to earn money and to get out of poverty. People are instruments in the hands of the government and they play by its rules. If there will be more opportunities and proper social conditions for people to live and work, the crimes that are caused by poverty will not take place anymore. A lot depends on the country that people live in, and on the fact how they see their future, which possibilities and advantages they can find and want to implement in their lives. Anyway, everything depends on a choice a person makes, wherever he lives and whatever he has.
Monday, January 20, 2020
All throughout history weÃ¢â¬â¢ve encountered people trying to contain and cage in people in about almost anything from a bathroom to an interment camp. Although these attempts to contain and imprison humans for no correct motive have been futile, These incidents do of course leave their marking and change society a responsibility that comes upon wrong doings. They change people in society like, Fred Korematsu ,born in the U.S. in 1919. His parents were born in Japan. Since he was born in the U.S. he was a citizen. He grew up like a normal kid in California. He had a normal childhood, until the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1942. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Japanese Americans were regarded as a threat to the U.S. Things was soon to dramatically change for all the Japanese, including our own Fred Korematsu, an American- Japanese. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Japanese Americans were regarded as a threat to the United states of America. This then led President Roosevelt issued Executive order 9066, also know as the Exclusion Order. This Order stated that any descendents or immigrants from enemy nations who might be a threat to U.S. security will report to assembly centers for Internment. There were no trials or hearings. They were forced to evacuate and many lost their homes and their businesses. Fred Korematsu refused to go. He was a U.S. citizen so he felt like he had no real duty to leave, since he was obviously from there. Roosevelt had violated Korematsu's basic constitutional rights and every other Japanese-American. The fourth amendment states itself, "The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated; and no wa... ... incident they have apologized, telling us that this incident was Ã¢â¬Å"bigÃ¢â¬ for them and they had to take up the other end and do the right thing finally. Not only did they correct themselves, but it also shows the world how human their country is, how opinions are able to change over time, and how they do change! In 1998 President Clinton presented the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Korematsu. "In the long history of our country's constant search for justice, some names of ordinary citizens stand for millions of souls," Clinton with out doubt kew the Fred Korematsu had this then president Clinton finally put the Presidential Medal of Freedom on him. Clinton said, recalling the names of civil rights pioneers, "to that distinguished list, today we add the name of Fred Korematsu." Fred Korematsu had finally got his victory, his voice was finally heard. He was correct.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Benefits of Integrating Human Resources Management (HRM) and the Payroll Databases. The Human Resources Management and Payroll are completely different business processes; however, they depend on each other for accurate and timely flow of information for their business operations. Integrating these two process will ensure that the information flow between them is timely and less erroneous. The benefits of such integration includes but not limited to: (a) No duplicate data entry: Integrating HRM and Payroll processes means maintaining a common database. Therefore, any changes made to any aspect of the database are entered only once. There will be no need to make a duplicate entry of the changes. This eliminates errors that may occur due to multiple entries. (b) Less paper work: Having a common database reduces unnecessary paperwork and greatly reduces input errors. Ã © Integrated Reporting: Integrating the HRM and Payroll makes room for automatic update of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ records. With integrated reporting tools, consolidated reporting can easily be generated and containing an up to date employee information, benefits, data, and compensation data. . The current problems related to labor at Fargo Publishing (a) Fargo Publishing still uses the traditional punch clocks to track employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ time in and out of work. With this system, the company looses lots of money when employees arrive late to work, leave early from work, and then resort to Ã¢â¬Å"buddy clockingÃ¢â¬ that is clocking for other people. Employees are paid for hours not worked, and productivity is greatly affected. (b) Employees time data are manually inputted into the payroll computer by checking the time cards. The problem with this process is that there is high risk of input errors obtainable when manually inputting the data for 250 hourly workers. Manually inputting these data is time consuming and delays update to necessary master files. Ã © Too Many paper work: There is too many paper work involved in the flow of information among the different departments. Since the different processes at the Fargo publishing are not automated, a lot of paper work is involved in the flow of information from one department to the other. This process is not cost effective, and it is also time consuming. There could also be loss of data during transfer process. (d) EmployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ time cards are checked by HR on a weekly basis at the end of the week. This means that employee database is updated on a weekly basis as related to time in and out. Therefore, no report can be generated based on this information until the end of the week. The issue with this system occurs when there is any threat that will destroy the time cards before the end of the week, all data is lost because the master database is not updated. 3) Recommendations to improve the problems related to labor. a. The use of Biometric Time System: The biometric scan is an automated system that verifies employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ identity based on their fingerprint. It provides a more reliable and accurate data on employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ identity and time. It eliminates the problem of buddy clocking and ensures that employees are paid for time worked. b. Integration and Syn chronization of Databases: The use of Biometric Time Systems would require the integration and synchronization of all the databases in the HRM and Payroll departments. This will ensure immediate and accurate update to the common database, and easy back up following any changes. This system will also reduce the volume of paper work involved in processing the flow of information. c. The use of Input Edit and Processing Controls: At this point, I would recommend the use of Input Edit and Processing Controls to reduce and detect erroneous entry into the database. Example of controls include: Validity check and field (format) check. (4. ) How Management can measure the cost savings of these recommendations. A. The use of Biometric Time System: The cost savings can be measured by the volume of books printed per day as a result of employees having to report to work on time and leave at a scheduled time to personally clock in and out. The longer time employees spend at work, the more likely productivity will improve when properly supervised. B. Integration and Synchronization of databases: The cost savings can be measured by the amount spent on paper supplies at the end of every month. This is compare to when the system was not integrated or synchronized. It can also be measured by the ease of dataflow among departments, which is how long it takes for department to access information processed in another department. C. Input Edit and Processing Controls: The cost saving can be measured by the number of reports that have to be reproduced because of erroneous entries. It can also be measured by reduction in the overtime paid reflecting the extra hours put in to correct what was previously completed due to error. References Chestnut, R. (n. d). Traditional Punch Clocks Vs Biometric Time Systems. Retrieved November 16, 2010 from, http://www. ezinearticles. com/? Traditional-Punch-Clocks-Vs-Biometric-Time-Systems Romney, M. B. & Steinbart P. J. (2009). The Human Resources Management and Payroll Cycle. In Strayer University 2010 Custom Edition, Accounting Information Systems (pp. 497-517). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Sinh, M. (2010). Integrating HR and Payroll Ã¢â¬â Key Considerations and Benefits for Companies. Retrieved November 16, 2010 from, http://www. articlesbase. com/software-articles